Monday, 23 May 2022

Ganly's Hotel guests in 1919.

 An open air sanatorium. 

Tourists boards pay writers to come up with fine words regarding tourist destinations but in 1919, a review of a holiday spent on the Aran Islands could not be bettered. That the reviewer was a politician, barrister and journalist, was of great benefit and that he had a reputation for being scrupulously honest and fearless, lent extra credibility to his remarks. 

In October 1919, a very important but sadly neglected figure from Irish history, Laurence Ginnell (1852-1923), spent some time recuperating in Árainn after a difficult few months in jail. He was  sixty eight years old and in poor shape but he credited his stay at Ganly’s Hotel in Cill Rónáin with restoring much of his vigour. 

Photo from 1906 by Jane Shackleton. Ganly's Hotel in the distance.

Ginnell was the serving MP for Westmeath since 1906 and had been prevented from attending the first  Dáil (1919-1921) in 1919 by virtue of his imprisonment. He had a lifelong reputation for being “difficult” but this word was and is, often used for somebody who doggedly sticks to principal and refuses to make compromises. 

His interventions in Westminster were legendary and he was a man to be wary of no matter what side of the political divide you came from. He had been expelled from the Irish Party in 1909 for asking awkward questions about finances and receipts. This was very similar to how Anna Parnell had been sidelined for doing the same to her brother’s Land League, some years previously.


Ginnell was to the House of Commons for much of the first two decades of the 20th century, what Dennis Skinner was to that same parliament, many decades later. Both refused to be silenced and proceeded from one suspension to the next. Larry had the extra distinction of being expelled from both the Commons and the Dáil. His Dáil expulsion was for asking awkward questions, when he was the only anti-treaty TD to attend the third Dáil in 1922. He was ejected before it could get underway for asking awkward questions before signing in. 

Laurence Ginnell was a founding member of the London branch of the Irish Literary Society. This branch  was very supportive of the Irish Literary society in Ireland and in particular, the newly formed Abbey Theatre.  A self educated man and son of a farm labourer, Laurence could speak several languages and was a highly skilled barrister and author of several books. 

After his release from Mountjoy prison in September 1919, Laurence and his equally gifted second wife, Alice King from near Mullingar, arrived on Árainn in October for a holiday. Booking into Ganly’s famous hotel, by all accounts they had a great time. 

On November 1st, the Galway Express newspaper carried a report on Ginnell’s account of his visit as well as his views on other matters. The interview was done at the Railway Hotel in Galway and the journalist involved was accompanied by the solicitor George Nicholls who was head of the IRB in Galway. George was a brother to the tragic Eibhlín Nicholls whom we mentioned previously as being a friend to the Islands nurse, Bridget Hedderman

According to the newspaper article, the Ginnell’s entry in the Ganly Hotel visitors book will be read with interest as long as the Hotel stands and the record remains. Here is what it said. 

Many more persons read of the antiquities of the Aran Islands than take the bother to visit them. The main attraction for visitors at present is to attain the Gaelic blas for which purpose Inish-meadhon is said to be the best of the islands. The antiquities and blas have valid claim on the attention of  all Irish people.

 But Aran has a stronger claim as a great natural sanitorium unadvertised and unbooned upon the overworked, the exhausted, the run down, upon all those whose health is impaired. 

In this condition I came and for the result, I shall ever feel grateful. It is much to be regretted that members of the medical profession do not frequent and experiment in Aran and diffuse its merits and the consequent blessing of good health, instead  of advising patients to waste time and money on so called foreign so-called health resort. 

Inishmore is the best for this purpose, affording the greatest scope and variety. So mild is the climate that there is rarely any frost or snow. Cows and calves are outdoor night and day, all year round. And even persons physically delicate can safely bathe in the open area in October. What must it be like in bounding Spring and glorious Summer. 

Rocks rocks certainly, is it any wonder that one loves Aran more every day, comes away from it with regret and longs for the opportunity of returning, when, while inhaling renewed health, he or she can examine and speculate upon the huge and mysterious Cyclopes forts of more than three thousand years old. The best preserved remains of that period extant in Europe or the numerous Christian temples, oratories, altars, graves, and holy wells of a later and milder date. 

And hear the same kindly greeting in the  same language and soothing voice as when the saints walked the isles. All not merely gratis but with modest pride and gratitude to one for asking guidance. 

While on Aran I have not heard an angry, not even a loud voice. When a health resort happens to be at the same time a place of scenic beauty and unique historical and religious interest. 

I must be understood as quite within the literal truth regarding Aran with combined love and reverence. Visitors have nothing to fear in the matter of accommodation and pure and wholesome food. 

Those whose health condition requires first class cooking, exquisite soups and meats, fish and fowl, prepared in the most tempting manner, dainty homemade cakes in endless variety and best quality and attendance equal to the best hotel anywhere, will act wisely in securing quarters in Ganly’s Hotel, Kilronan, Co Galway

Labhras MacFhionnghail

(Laurence Ginnell)

October 1919

Laurence Ginnell was a founding member of the United Irish League in 1898 which was a radical group who were willing to push for much more effective land distribution that the mainstream Home Rulers. It’s likely that Ginnell spent time with the Parish Priest, Murty Farragher, as Ganly’s and the presbytery were closely located. 

Fr Farragher was the leader of the UIL on the island, founding a branch in 1904. He had been accused by some of using it to advance his own cause after his house was bombed in 1908 and maintain a boycott he instigated afterwards. He organised a welcome rally for Laurence in the local church grounds. 

They may have had many things in common in 1919 but after the treaty, they ended up on different sides with Ginnell being fervently Anti-Treaty. He had been in Argentina during the Treaty debates promoting the Irish cause and was annoyed when he was prevented from registering his vote against the treaty, by cable. 

In the case of most politicians, it’s likely that mention of the bomb and boycott would be scrupulously avoided but going on Larry Ginnell’s record for very blunt talking in both the Dáil and the Commons, it’s highly likely that he dived right in with his friend, Murtagh Farragher. 

In the course of his 1919 interview he praised both the island and its Parish Priest, whom he rightly credited with being behind many improvements. He avoided going to see the ‘Blow Hole’ which he had been told was a ‘must see’. He noted that after his experiences in parliament and court he was very well acquainted with ‘blow holes’

Alice was a very gifted woman and spoke a number of languages. She had married Laurence when she was just nineteen and he was fifty and by all accounts they had a very happy marriage. A committed Suffragette and Republican, she probably was a positive influence on Laurence when he was one of only two members of the old Irish Party who supported votes for women from the outset. Some voted in favour later but both the Unionist Edward Carson and Nationalist John Redmond, were firmly against.

( Note. Redmond’s brother Willie was a strong supporter of women being given the vote. Willie was involved in getting the falsely imprisoned Islander, Bryan Kilmartin released in 1884. He was killed during WW1)

.Alice was very supportive of Laurence and at his sentencing for incitement on March 26th 1918 to six months imprisonment, caused a disturbance in court by waving a flag and shouting “Up the Republic”. She was supported in this by her friend Maude Gonne McBride. 

An R.I.C. Inspector recognised Alice Ginnell and ordered an unfortunate Constable to remove the two protesters, who were determined not to go. As he attempted to lay hands on the two women, fourteen year old Seán McBride, son to Maude, waded in and swung a few punches, both left and right, at the policeman and some detectives who came to assist, before all three were ejected. 

In December 1918, Alice recognised that the Westmeath election campaign for her imprisoned Laurence was being poorly organised. Taking on the role of official election agent herself, she became the first woman in Britain or Ireland to hold such a position. Her efforts helped greatly in getting her husband elected from his cell in Reading Goal.  

In recent years the important role the Ginnells played in Irish History has been acknowledged, with in particular, Paul Hughes at the Westmeath Examiner newspaper, highlighting the Ginnells contribution on a number of occasions.  

Laurence was in Washington rallying support for DeValera in April 1923 when he died suddenly at age 71. His widow Alice would live on to the great age of 87, dying in 1967. It’s hard not to wonder what a suffragette, feminist and Republican like Alice made of the new Irish state that she and Laurence had fought so selflessly for

Thomas Ganly died in 1926 and his widow, Ellen O’Flaherty Ganly, sold the hotel in 1956 and moved to live with her daughter, Anna Blacker, in Kildare. Some of our readers will remember this magnificent thatched hotel, renamed Lios Aengus, when it was run by the Concannon family until the mid 1960s. Today it’s the location for one of the islands finest guesthouses, Dormer House. 

Alas, Ganly’s hotel no longer stands but perhaps the visitors book from 1919 is still around somewhere. In any case, we can thank the Galway Express of 1919 for letting us know just how highly the Ginnells regarded the hospitality and health benefits of the Aran Islands. 

Our article focuses on the views on the island Laurence and Alice gave to the Galway Express on their way back from Aran in late October 1919. However, Alice would later recall that about a week after returning to the mainland, doctors ordered Laurence back to Aran where it appears they remained for a few months before going to Dublin in early March, 1920. 

Alice must have journeyed to the mainland on occasion because she stood unsuccessfully for Sinn Féin in the local elections for the Pembroke ward in January 1920 where one of the successful Unionist candidates was Samuel Beckett’s father, William. As there was a three way tie for the position of chairman, Alice, who was in attendance at the first council meeting, was asked to draw the winner from a hat. She duly drew out William Beckett. 

Laurence had probably exaggerated how well he had recovered in Aran in his November 1919 interview because, after his arrest in Dublin on March 26th 1920, he was released three days later as his health was so poor. 

The two doctors who vouched for his very poor health, and called for  his release from prison were Kathleen Lynn and George Sigerson. A sitting member of the 1st Dáil dying in prison, was to be avoided at all costs, it seems. 

Michael F Muldoon

May 2022

Tuesday, 4 January 2022

A Pre-Raphaelite in Árainn

  Doctor O’Brien and his powerful memory. 

While reading the very informative book Nobody’s Business, The Aran Diaries of Ernie O’Malley, we were interested greatly in his interactions with the island doctor James O’Brien (1883-1970), who served the three islands for over forty years. 

Ernie was a very famous rebel who had a great way with words and his unguarded diary entries, on the Ireland of the first half of the 20th century, are very insightful. The book is edited by his son Cormac O’Malley and Róisín Kennedy. 

Ernie’s casual account of his visits to the islands in the 40s and 50s, brings readers back to a world long gone. He was particularly friendly with Cill Rónáin man, Dr Séamus O’Brien, who was the son of John O’Brien and Margaret Hernon. His parents ran a pub and shop which some readers will remember as the late John Kenny’s ‘Lucky Star Bar’. 

In the course of the book, it was recorded by Dr O’Brien that the very famous English painter William Holman Hunt (1827-1910) had stayed in O’Briens once and that as far as Dr O’Brien could remember, he had once come across a painting by Hunt, of the head of an Aran boy, in some museum in Liverpool. 

Ernie was married to and had three children with, the very talented American artist, Helen Hooker O’Malley. 

Dr James O’Brien is remembered as a brilliant doctor, if a little eccentric, and he had a great interest in the arts. We can remember the late Brendán Ó hEithir mentioning how kind Dr O’Brien was when Brendán was a boy, in letting him borrow books from his extensive library. 

Ernie O’Malley had among his companions on Árainn the very famous Irish Painter, Charles Lamb (1893-1964) and he mentions how Charles’ wife was somehow related to some of the old Pre-Raphaelite crowd. 

William Holman Hunt was one of the seven original members of a school of painting known as the Pre-Raphaelites founded around 1848. 

The reference to Lamb’s wife being connected to this group is correct. Charles Lamb was married to the American, Katherine Madox Hueffer (1900-1978), who was a daughter of the famous English writer, Ford Madox Ford whose maternal grandfather was the Pre-Raphaelite painter, Ford Madox Brown. 

It seems no record of William Hunt ever having visited Árainn could be found and the possibility of Dr O’Brien being mistaken, had to be considered as he was very young at the time of Hunt’s alleged visit. 

It was only when we were doing some research on the efforts in the 1890s by Fr Michael O’Donahoe, (of Cill Rónáin cross fame) to raise funds for new boats, that we came across a reference to William Hunt. 

One of the stated aims of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was to…….STUDY NATURE ATTENTIVELY, SO AS TO KNOW HOW TO EXPRESS IT.

It’s no great surprise then, to discover that Hunt spent a month on the island in the company of a very famous Cambridge zoologist, Harold Hulme Brindley (1865-1944). Harold was following in the footsteps of another great Cambridge man, the botanist Cardale Babington, who had attended the great Dún Aengus Banquet in1857. 

In a letter to the papers in February 1892, Harold Brindley mentions the great friendship he and William Holman Hunt established with Fr Michael O’Donohoe during their time on the island in the summer of 1888. A hungry year which we dealt with before when documenting the visit of Michael Davitt and his efforts at Relief. Harold donated a pound towards the fishing fund. 

Dr O’Brien would have been just five years old when Brindley and Hunt stayed in his home.

William Holman Hunt is famous in Protestant religious life for his two iconic paintings, Light of the World and The Shadow of  Death.
 His ‘Light Of The World’ was often reproduced in stained glass, in Anglican Church windows. 

Shadow of Death exhibited to huge crowds in Belfast and Dublin in 1875. Holman Hunt’s third and final version is now in the Art Institute of Chicago 

William Hunt is famous also for some non religious paintings. Here are examples of two, which feature a mistress getting up from the lap of her wealthy lover and a rosy cheeked shepherd attempting to seduce a young shepherdess. 

This entire article is an example of how going down one road can soon see one heading off down inviting boreens and the main story of the financing of boats in 1892, must be left for another day. 

We almost started detailing some of the great paintings of the Connemara based Portadown man, Charles Lamb, but that would take forever.

 Indeed it might lead on to us mentioning one of the great heroes of Irish nature studies of our youth, Charles Lamb’s son-in-law, the late  Éamon de Buitléar and his 60s TV programme ‘Amuigh Faoin Spéir’

Or even a mention of Fr Ted’s Craggy Island and Fargo Boyle  of the champion sheep competition. Fargo was played by one of Ireland’s most distinguished stage, film and TV actors, the late Peadar Lamb (1930-2017), a son of Charles.
(Time to stop.)

M Muldoon January 2022

Sunday, 19 December 2021

Mrs Gorham’s famous letter.

Mrs Maria Gorham, Conradh na Gaeilge and the Postmaster-General in London.

In 1905 a sixty five year old Cill Rónáin landlady found herself at the centre of an Irish language controversy which went all the way to the House of Commons in London. The Postmaster-General, Lord Stanley, was forced to answer questions as to why a letter addressed to Mrs Maria Gorham had remained undelivered because the address had been written in Irish. 

Conradh na Gaeilge (Gaelic League) had been founded by Roscommon man Douglas Hyde a few years earlier in 1893 and this organisation was the main driving force in what became known as the Irish Revival Movement. A non-political and non-denominational organisation initially, its aims were the revival of both the Gaelic language and Gaelic customs. 

Conradh na Gaeilge activists were a vibrant and astute bunch of men and women and were quick to recognise the value of publicity for their cause and were not shy about prodding sacred cows, whether civil or religious. 

Previous to 1905 they had caused uproar on the islands after clashing with the authoritarian Fr. Murty Farragher over the preaching of sermons in English by his curate Fr Charles White (1870-1935).

Fr. Farragher had defended his curate and turned his steely streak of determination against the Gaelic League.  A league where he himself presided as chairman, when the island’s inaugural meeting was held in Cill Rónáin schoolhouse in 1898. 

After much heated debate and some frank letters to the papers, a peace eventually broke out and Fr. White was transferred in 1902. Although Fr. Farragher exchanged some bitter words with the League initially, by 1905 he was once again on good terms and paying his contribution. The story of this controversy is for another day perhaps.

We did however do a piece on the bombing of  Fr. Farragher in 1908 which can be read HERE

In 1905, Maria Gorham was keeping guests at her house which was located at An tSean Chéibh at Cill Rónáin. This old pier had also been known as Céibh na Móna (Turf Pier). Maria had advertised her home as being very suitable for ‘Gaelic Leaguers’ and that Irish was spoken by everyone. She also describes it as a ‘Health Resort’ which is a term that can fairly be ascribed to all three Aran Islands. 

At this stage a little background on Maria Gorham is appropriate. In 1865, Maria (Mary) O’Malley had married a fisherman named Stephen O’Rourke. Maria and Stephen would have three children together but on November 22nd 1873, Stephen and his two companions, Pat Fitzmorris and James Leonard, set out to retrieve long lines they had set the day before. In all, five currachs set out that day but only four would come home. 

A sudden squall arose and all five boats battled bravely for home. Sadly, the boat Stephen was in overturned and the three occupants were lost, never to be found. 

Once again, a man who always showed great affinity with Irish fishermen and mariners in general, Thomas F Brady, Inspector of Fisheries, launched an appeal to help the three widows and over a dozen orphans. Maria was pregnant at the time and her son Thomas was born the following March. 

1874 was a good year for the people of Cill Éinne as the widow Mary Anne D’Arcy O’Malley had left a large sum in her will to be used for the benefit of the village. Mary Anne was the widow of the smuggler Martin O’Malley of Killeany Lodge and the sum she left, £482-4-10, would today be worth €67,432. The three trustees of this fund were the Parish Priest John Concannon, Coastguard Commander John Drew and Thomas Brady.

In addition to this money, Brady had by February 1874 collected £112 for the three destitute families which today would be worth about €15,700. This money Brady used to help the families and also to buy new boats for the sons old enough to use them. 

In 1876, the widow Maria O’Rourke married the baker John Gorham and they went on to have a number of children together. Her daughter Margaret O’Rourke would marry one of the Congested Districts Board subsidised Arklow fishermen, Henry Lynch, in 1892 and some of our readers may remember their daughter Mary (Cis) Lynch who lived in a small thatched house beside An tSean Chéibh restaurant. 

But back to the famous letter of 1905 which led to all the fuss. 

In an inspired move, a great Gaelic Leaguer, Thomas A Murphy of Booterstown in Dublin sent off the letter in Irish to Mrs Gorham. He had high hopes of success as failure could only happen if the letter was delivered promptly. Failure to deliver in an area where Irish was the first language would garner more attention.

The address he used according to the papers was…







The Aran letter was part of a wide scale campaign to have the native language treated on terms at least equal to how letters in other European languages were handled. To this end, the Gaelic Leaguers arrived at post offices with letters addressed in Irish and with due postage paid. When asked, they refused to provide a translation of the addresses. 

Thomas A Murphy had a distinguished career as a Civil Servant and was Secretary of the Civil Service Commission when he retired in the 1930s. He and his wife, Kathleen, were registered for the census of 1901 in English. By 1911 they were both using the Irish version of their names and Kathleen had taken the very unusual step of registering under her maiden name. 

The more outrage and derision the language actions of Conradh inspired, the better they liked it as publicity was the oxygen for their cause. 

In the case of the letter to Mrs Gorham, they hit the jackpot and it’s raising in the House of Commons got massive publicity from news outlets who supported them and even more from those who did not. 

In December 1904, Thomas Murphy had written to the papers complaining about what had happened to his letter. He pointed out that the sub-postmaster Chard did not speak Irish although his sons Richard and Samuel did, but couldn’t read it. Both brothers helped out in the post Office as their father was aged. 

Murphy wondered how Richard, who was employed as petty court clerk and acted on occasion as interpreter, could deal with written court evidence in Irish. 

It’s worth noting that Samuel Chard had been one of the founding members of the Árainn branch of Conradh na Gaeilge in August 1898, when the teenage P.H. Pearse was among the over 500 people from all three islands who attended the old schoolhouse, both inside and out. 

It was important that the matter be raised in parliament and in March 1905, the job fell to a very famous Irishman, John Mary Pius Boland, the Irish Party MP for South Kerry. It seems asking difficult questions to raise the temperature comes naturally to members representing South Kerry. 

The Postmaster-General at the time was the honourable member for Westhoughton, Lord Edward Stanley (1865-1948). When it came to batting questions back and forth in the Commons, Lord Stanley was at a disadvantage as the man batting back at him was a double Olympic tennis gold medalist from the Athens games of 1896. 

Dubliner John Pius Boland had been orphaned as a youngster and his uncle, the Roman Catholic auxiliary Bishop, Nicholas Donnelly, had become guardian for him and his siblings. John’s father was one of the Bolands Mills family but John was sent to England for his education and his Dublin connections weakened. 

Attending the Olympic Games as a spectator, he was persuaded to enter for the tennis competitions. He went on to win the singles and later the doubles when he partnered a German, Herr Friedrich Traun.

It was only after these games, when he took exception to being described as ‘English’, that John Pius began to take a greater interest in his Irish roots and went on to become a very dogged supporter of the Gaelic League and a fluent Irish speaker. 

And so on the 7th of March 1905, John Pius rose to speak in the House of Commons and questioned Lord Stanley as to why a letter for Mrs Gorham had lain for four days in Kilronan post office, when the recipient lived just a couple of hundred yards away at the Old Pier.

The Postmaster-General replied that while the officials at the post office could speak Irish, reading it was a problem. Lord Stanley would have been wise to leave it at that but after further questions by John Pius Boland, declared that the address had been improperly written by Thomas Murphy. 

This of course gave Boland the equivalent of an overhead smash when he asked who had told him that it was improperly written. 

The matter was left with Lord Stanley declaring that he had been informed by “those in whom I have implicit confidence”.

Of course two days later the matter was raised again as Thomas A Murphy, being an ex-Blackrock college man and, more importantly, a Corkman, took fierce offence at the slight on his language skills. He had a number of languages and in his later years as head of the Vincent de Paul, could correspond with society officials in Paris in perfect French. 

Boland informed the house that Thomas Murphy would like to know who the linguist was that had judged his letter to be incorrectly addressed. 

As Lord Stanley had already admitted that the Kilronan Postmaster couldn’t read Irish text, he had to find another scapegoat. He was aware that some suspected he had made the whole thing up about Murphy’s incompetence and misled the house.  

In those days, misleading the House of Commons was deemed a great offence and making things up (lying), a terrible slur on one’s character. In true political expediency, he now threw the postmaster of Galway Town under the omnibus. 

The Galway Postmaster at the time was William Cornwall (1848-1923) and as William was a Methodist from Belfast, it’s unlikely (but not impossible) the verification of Murphy’s poor language skills came from him. William had left the ‘proficiency in Irish’ column blank in his census returns. 

And here the matter rested although Boland warned that there would be further questions. 

The records of the House of Commons give an accurate account of the questions and answers but the newspapers also recorded the heckling and derision from the benches. 

Not surprisingly, the main contributor was the honourable member for North Antrim, the Right Honourable William Moore KC, who would venture that even the addressee couldn’t read the address ‘himself’. William would go on to be Chief Justice for Northern Ireland. Not the last time a member for North Antrim would take on the role of cutting edge comedian. 

Many English papers had great fun with the whole affair and treated the attempt to have ‘Erse’ recognised as a frivolous distraction. 

As in military battles, the advantage is always with those who can pick and choose the time and location for a row. One of the most famous Conradh engagements that same year was the case of the Donegal poet, writer and musician, Niall Mac Giolla Bhrighde (1861-1942, Neil McBride) who was prosecuted for having an Irish language ‘illegible’ and therefore illegal nameplate, on his ass-cart. 

The name plate can be viewed at Donegal County Museum in Letterkenny. 

(Niall is also said to have composed the tragic song of emigration and death, Noreen Bawn).

Just a few days after Lord Stanley having been asked questions about Mrs Gorham’s letter, Níall was confronted by a policeman as he and his ass-cart were going about their business. Fined a shilling, he refused to pay and at a subsequent court in Dunfanaghy again refused when the fine was doubled.

Pádraig Pearse was a junior barrister and volunteered to be part of the team to represent Neil at the court of appeal in Dublin. Of course they lost the case but won the publicity contest.  There is some debate as to whether this was the only occasion Pearse practised as a barrister. His last court appearance would be at his own court-martial in 1916.

The whole controversy probably brought a lot of Gaelic League business to Mrs Gorham and in 1906 she was advertising her home in Pearse’s paper, An Claidheamh Soluis (the Sword of Light).

In 1906 the great photographer Jane Shackleton made one of her photographic expeditions to Aran and with the controversy the year before still fresh, it’s no great surprise that Maria Gorham featured.

The book of photographs is called Jane W Shackleton’s Ireland, compiled by Christiaan Corlett and published by Collins Press. 

Mrs Gorham on the right of doorway. 

The house where John and Maria Gorham lived is now part of the extensive Carraig Donn empire, the late Pádraic and Maura Hughes of Westport having started up a very successful family craft and sweater shop there in the 1960s. 

The Gorham name has died out on the island, but some of our followers may recognise the name from a piece we did some years ago about the heroic part Maria’s son, Willie Gorham, played in rescuing two islanders who were stranded on Oileán Dá Bhranóg in 1926. You can read that HERE

The story of the Aran postal controversy was one of the opening battles in the fight to have the Irish language given fair play and treated with respect. 

Níl an troid thart. 

Many thanks to all those who helped in the writing of this article. 


Nollaig 2021.